Video description: Peru, Living the Legend by PromPeru.
Peru Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of
the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in
Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th
century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American
colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of
political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic
The earliest evidence of human presence in Peruvian territory has been dated to approximately 11,000 BCE. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3000 and 1800 BCE. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures such as Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca, Wari, and Chimú. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.